all facts of Vietnam
10/06/2013 | 09:07

Introduction ::VIETNAM
Geography ::VIETNAM
People and Society ::VIETNAM
Government ::VIETNAM
Economy ::VIETNAM
Energy ::VIETNAM
Communications ::VIETNAM
Transportation ::VIETNAM
Military ::VIETNAM
Transnational Issues ::VIETNAM


East & Southeast Asia :: Vietnam
Map of Vietnam
Introduction ::Vietnam
The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954, Vietnam was divided into the communist North and anti-communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government, but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later, North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under communist rule. Despite the return of peace, for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies, the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However, since the enactment of Vietnam''s "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986, Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive, export-driven industries. The communist leaders, however, maintain control on political expression and have resisted outside calls to improve human rights. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups - the vast majority connected to land-use issues, calls for increased political space, and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities, such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region, have also held protests.
Geography ::Vietnam
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia
16 10 N, 107 50 E
total: 331,210 sq km
country comparison to the world: 66
land: 310,070 sq km
water: 21,140 sq km
slightly larger than New Mexico
total: 4,639 km
border countries: Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km
3,444 km (excludes islands)
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)
low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Fan Si Pan 3,144 m
phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower
arable land: 19.64%
permanent crops: 11.18%
other: 69.18% (2011)
45,850 sq km (2005)
884.1 cu km (2011)
total: 82.03 cu km/yr (1%/4%/95%)
per capita: 965 cu m/yr (2005)
occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive flooding, especially in the Mekong River delta
logging and slash-and-burn agricultural practices contribute to deforestation and soil degradation; water pollution and overfishing threaten marine life populations; groundwater contamination limits potable water supply; growing urban industrialization and population migration are rapidly degrading environment in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
extending 1,650 km north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point
People and Society ::Vietnam
noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)
adjective: Vietnamese
Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (1999 census)
Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favored as a second language), some French, Chinese, and Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Buddhist 9.3%, Catholic 6.7%, Hoa Hao 1.5%, Cao Dai 1.1%, Protestant 0.5%, Muslim 0.1%, none 80.8% (1999 census)
92,477,857 (July 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
0-14 years: 24.6% (male 11,931,623/female 10,807,661)
15-24 years: 18.4% (male 8,796,395/female 8,215,536)
25-54 years: 44.4% (male 20,554,252/female 20,551,460)
55-64 years: 7% (male 2,936,340/female 3,517,538)
65 years and over: 5.6% (male 1,986,839/female 3,180,213) (2013 est.)
total: 28.7 years
male: 27.6 years
female: 29.7 years (2013 est.)
1.03% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
16.56 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Ho Chi Minh City 5.976 million; HANOI (capital) 2.668 million; Haiphong 1.941 million; Da Nang 807,000 (2009)
at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
59 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 101
total: 19.61 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 95
male: 19.97 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
total population: 72.65 years
country comparison to the world: 130
male: 70.2 years
female: 75.4 years (2013 est.)
1.87 children born/woman (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
6.8% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 89
1.22 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
3.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
urban: 99% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95% of population
urban: 1% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 5% of population (2010 est.)
urban: 94% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 76% of population
urban: 6% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 24% of population (2010 est.)
0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
280,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
14,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, and plague
water contact disease: leptospirosis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
1.7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 186
20.2% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 35
6.6% of GDP (2010)
country comparison to the world: 29
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94%
male: 96.1%
female: 92% (2002 est.)
total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2001)
total: 4.6%
country comparison to the world: 135
male: 4.4%
female: 4.9% (2004)
Government ::Vietnam
conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam
abbreviation: SRV
Communist state
name: Hanoi (Ha Noi)
geographic coordinates: 21 02 N, 105 51 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)
provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai
municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City
2 September 1945 (from France)
Independence Day, 2 September (1945)
15 April 1992
civil law system; note - the civil code of 2005 reflects a European-style civil law
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
18 years of age; universal
chief of state: President Truong Tan SANG (since 25 July 2011); Vice President Nguyen Thi DOAN (25 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Nguyen Tan DUNG (since 27 June 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Hoang Trung HAI (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien NHAN (since 2 August 2007), Deputy Prime Minister Vu Van NINH (since 3 August 2011), and Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan PHUC (since 3 August 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president based on proposal of prime minister and confirmed by National Assembly
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by the National Assembly from among its members for five-year term; last election held 25 July 2011 (next to be held in July 2016); prime minister appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers appointed by the prime minister; appointment of prime minister and deputy prime ministers confirmed by National Assembly
election results: Truong Tan SANG elected president, percent of National Assembly vote - 97%; Nguyen Tan DUNG elected prime minister, percent of National Assembly vote - 94%
unicameral National Assembly or Quoc Hoi (500 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPV 458, non-party CPV-approved 38, self-nominated 4; note - 500 candidates were elected; the 496 CPV and non-party CPV-approved delegates were members of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front and were vetted prior to the election
Supreme People's Court (chief justice is elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president for a five-year term)
Communist Party of Vietnam or CPV [Nguyen Phu TRONG]; other parties proscribed
8406 Bloc; Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Vietnam or PDP-VN; Alliance for Democracy
note: these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the government
chief of mission: Ambassador Nguyen Quoc CUONG
chancery: 1233 20th Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036

Mrs. Roberta Tione from Italy
classic tours
 Hallo Mario
We had a nice flight back home, and now we are redatto to get back to work. Which is the hardest part or been back home :( 
The journey through Vietnam was marvellous and did enjoyed very much! We do appreciate your and all the staff in Vietnamtravelart professional!
Thank you for our discovery of your beautiful country! 
Warmest Regards,
Mrs. Roberta Tione from Italy